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Die führenden Karten jeder Farbe: das As, den König, die Dame und umgibt bemerkt er, dass Trefowyj der Bube, das geheime Gespräch des Königs mit. In England mochten die XVI. Jahrhunderte die Jagd auf das Wildschwein König Heinrich VIII und seine Tochter Jelisaweta I. Presrew die Gefahr, jagten sie. Der Schauplaz ist in verschiednen Theilen von England. Erster Aufzug. Erste Scene. (Der Hof.) (König Richard, Johann von Gaunt, Lords und Gefolge treten.

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The rebel barons responded by inviting the French prince Louis to lead them: Louis had a claim to the English throne by virtue of his marriage to Blanche of Castile , a granddaughter of Henry II.

Prince Louis intended to land in the south of England in May , and John assembled a naval force to intercept him. By the end of the summer the rebels had regained the south-east of England and parts of the north.

In September , John began a fresh, vigorous attack. He marched from the Cotswolds , feigned an offensive to relieve the besieged Windsor Castle , and attacked eastwards around London to Cambridge to separate the rebel-held areas of Lincolnshire and East Anglia.

John returned west but is said to have lost a significant part of his baggage train along the way. Louis gave up his claim to the English throne and signed the Treaty of Lambeth.

John's first wife, Isabella, Countess of Gloucester, was released from imprisonment in ; she remarried twice, and died in Historical interpretations of John have been subject to considerable change over the centuries.

Medieval chroniclers provided the first contemporary, or near contemporary, histories of John's reign. One group of chroniclers wrote early in John's life, or around the time of his accession, including Richard of Devizes , William of Newburgh , Roger of Hoveden and Ralph de Diceto.

In the 16th century political and religious changes altered the attitude of historians towards John. Tudor historians were generally favourably inclined towards the King, focusing on his opposition to the Papacy and his promotion of the special rights and prerogatives of a king.

By the Victorian period in the 19th century, historians were more inclined to draw on the judgements of the chroniclers and to focus on John's moral personality.

Kate Norgate , for example, argued that John's downfall had been due not to his failure in war or strategy, but due to his "almost superhuman wickedness", whilst James Ramsay blamed John's family background and his cruel personality for his downfall.

In the s, new interpretations of John's reign began to emerge, based on research into the record evidence of his reign, such as pipe rolls , charters, court documents and similar primary records.

Notably, an essay by Vivian Galbraith in proposed a "new approach" to understanding the ruler. Specialists in Irish medieval history, such as Sean Duffy, have challenged the conventional narrative established by Lewis Warren , suggesting that Ireland was less stable by than was previously supposed.

Most historians today, including John's recent biographers Ralph Turner and Lewis Warren, argue that John was an unsuccessful monarch, but note that his failings were exaggerated by 12th- and 13th-century chroniclers.

Warren Hollister , "The dramatic ambivalence of his personality, the passions that he stirred among his own contemporaries, the very magnitude of his failures, have made him an object of endless fascination to historians and biographers.

Popular representations of John first began to emerge during the Tudor period, mirroring the revisionist histories of the time.

Nineteenth-century fictional depictions of John were heavily influenced by Sir Walter Scott 's historical romance, Ivanhoe , which presented "an almost totally unfavourable picture" of the King; the work drew on 19th century histories of the period and on Shakespeare's play.

Sam De Grasse 's role as John in the black-and-white film version shows John committing numerous atrocities and acts of torture.

Milne 's poem for children, "King John's Christmas". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the King of England. For the play by William Shakespeare, see King John play.

King of England. Tomb effigy of King John, Worcester Cathedral. Worcester Cathedral. Isabella, Countess of Gloucester m.

Main article: Angevin Empire. Main article: Normandy campaigns of — Main article: Economy of England in the Middle Ages. Main article: List of nobles and magnates of England in the 13th century.

Main article: Anglo-French War — Main article: Magna Carta. Main article: First Barons' War.

See also: Cultural depictions of John of England. They formed a key route for communications between Anjou and Gascony. Many of the details surrounding these counties during this period are uncertain and subject to historical debate, but it would appear that both the English and French dynasties had been attempting to apply influence and build alliances with the key families in the region for many years before the flash point in Frank McLynn is more damning, describing the military aspects of the campaign as a "disastrous failure".

Frank Barlow, for example, argues that he was exercising a policy of expediency rather than genuine reform.

In , the citizens and merchants of Bordeaux were exempted from the Grande Coutume , which was the principal tax on their exports.

The unblocked ports gave Gascon merchants open access to the English wine market for the first time. The following year, John granted the same exemptions to La Rochelle and Poitou.

This entry notes that de Neville's wife offered the King chickens if she could spend a night with her husband, Hugh. This is conventionally interpreted as implying that she was having an affair with the King but in this case wished to have sex with her husband instead — thus the humorous fine.

An alternative explanation is that she was tired of Hugh being sent away on royal service and the fine was a light-hearted way of convincing John to ensure that her husband remained at court for a night.

Current scholarship considers Alexander's claim unreliable. Aberth, John. London: Routledge. Barlow, Frank. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

Barrett, Nick. Bartlett, Robert. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bevington, David. Bolton, J. Bradbury, Jim. London: Longman. Brown, Reginald Allen.

London: English Heritage. Carpenter, David. London: Hambledon Press. London: Penguin. Church, Stephen D.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. Church, Stephen London: Macmillan. Churchill, Winston.

London: Cassell. Coss, Peter. Curren-Aquino, Deborah T. D'Amassa, Don. New York: Facts on File. Danziger, Danny and John Gillingham.

London: Coronet Books. Duffy, Sean. Duncan, A. Dyer, Christopher. London: Yale University Press.

Elliott, Andrew B. Jefferson, US: McFarland. Fryde, E. Greenway, S. Porter and I. Roy eds Handbook of British Chronology, third edition.

Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. Fryde, Natalie. Galbraith, V. Gillingham, John. Gillingham, John The Angevin Empire. Given-Wilson, Chris.

Manchester: Manchester University Press. Harris, Jesse W. Hodgett, Gerald. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Hollister, C. Holt, James Clarke.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. London: Historical Association. Hunnisett, R. Huscroft, Richard. Harlow, UK: Pearson. Inwood, Stephen.

Johnson, Hugh. New York: Simon and Schuster. Jordan, William Chester. Lawler, John and Gail Gates Lawler. Washington DC: Beard Books. King of England , so she's got that going for her.

Der zukünftige König von England ist im Aufzug. Next King of England on his way up. King of England on his way up.

Ich und der nächste König von England trinken Kaffee. Me and the future King of England , having all the coffee.

King of England , having all the coffee. Sie sind der König von England. You're the King of England. Ihr seid der König von England. You are the king of England.

Heute wird zufällig der nächste König von England gewählt. There's a thing today where they pick the next King of England.

Zweitens, wird mein Bruder gleich zum nächsten König von England gekrönt. Second, my brother is about to be crowned the next King of England.

Der König von England hat ein Frettchen auf dem Kopf. The King of England has a ferret on his head.

King of England has a ferret on his head. Ich bin der König von England. Eduard IV. Erkämpfte sich erfolgreich den englischen Thron, verlor ihn aber nach dem Verrat des Richard Neville Warwick the Kingmaker.

Durch Warwick the Kingmaker erneut auf den Thron gehoben, wurde seine Partei von York bei Barnet und Tewkesbury entscheidend geschlagen.

Organisierte nach seiner Entmachtung aus dem niederländischen Exil heraus seine Rückkehr nach England. Stabilisierte die Herrschaft nach innen und verbündete sich mit Burgund gegen Frankreich.

Förderte durch eine effiziente Wirtschaftspolitik die ökonomische Erholung des Landes. Eduard V.

Richard III. Übernahm den Thron durch die Absetzung seines Neffen. Letzter Plantagenet auf dem englischen Thron. Heinrich VII. Heinrich VIII.

Bekämpfte die letzten Restaurationsversuche der York. Löste die Kirche von England von der Suprematie des Papstes und machte die Krone zu deren Oberhaupt Anglikanismus , trat aber gegen den Protestantismus auf.

Seit auch König von Irland. Eduard VI. Seine Herrschaft wurde von den Lordprotektoren Edward Seymour, 1. Duke of Somerset , und John Dudley, 1.

Duke of Northumberland , wahrgenommen, die beide den Protestantismus in England förderten. Wurde von Northumberland am Juli zur Königin proklamiert, aber nicht gekrönt.

Wurde bereits am Juli von den Anhängern Marias abgesetzt und ein Jahr später hingerichtet. Maria I.

Initiierte in England eine katholische Reaktion zur Eindämmung des Protestantismus, die von Massenverbrennungen begleitet wurde. Trat Calais als letzten englischen Kontinentalbesitz an Frankreich ab.

Philipp Philipp II. Elisabeth I. Löste die englische Kirche endgültig vom Katholizismus und führte sie dem Protestantismus zu.

Begründete die Seemachtstellung Englands und verteidigte diese gegen Spanien Untergang der spanischen Armada Das Elisabethanische Zeitalter markierte einen Höhepunkt in der wirtschaftlichen, kulturellen und politischen Geschichte Englands.

Jakob I. Als Jakob VI. Unter seiner Herrschaft wurde die erste englische Siedlung in Nordamerika gegründet Jamestown. Stand im Konflikt mit dem Parlament.

Karl I. Auch König von Schottland. Regierte ohne das Parlament und provozierte gegen das von den Puritanern dominierte Unterhaus einen Bürgerkrieg.

Seine Anhänger wurden von dem Parlamentsheer unter Oliver Cromwell geschlagen, er selbst des Hochverrats verurteilt und enthauptet. Danach wurde England zur Republik.

Als Lordprotektor de facto Herrscher des republikanischen England. Unterwarf Schottland und Irland der englischen Herrschaft und ging aus dem ersten anglo-niederländischen Krieg siegreich hervor.

Gab das Amt des Lordprotektors auf, worauf die Restauration des Stuartkönigtums folgte. Karl II. Bereits zum König von Schottland gekrönt, musste aber nach der Niederlage von Worcester gegen Cromwell nach Frankreich fliehen.

Karl geriet aber wegen seiner Ehe mit einer katholischen Prinzessin in Konflikt mit dem Parlament. War im zweiten anglo-niederländischen Krieg unterlegen, konnte aber die Kolonie Nieuw Amsterdam später New York gewinnen.

Jakob II. Als Jakob VII. Bekannte sich als letzter englischer König zur römisch-katholischen Konfession und stand deshalb im ständigen Konflikt mit dem Parlament.

Sein Versuch, einen absolutistischen Herrschaftsstil zu etablieren führte zu seiner Absetzung in der Glorious Revolution durch Tochter und Schwiegersohn.

Maria II. Dezember und Wilhelm III. Im Act of Settlement wurden Katholiken von der Thronfolge ausgeschlossen. Letzte Stuartkönigin von England, Schottland und Irland.

Unter ihrer Regentschaft stand England im spanischen Erbfolgekrieg gegen Frankreich. Durch den Act of Union wurde am 1.

Mai die seit einem Jahrhundert bestehende Personalunion zwischen England und Schottland aufgelöst und durch eine Realunion ersetzt.

Die Liste der britischen Monarchen listet seine Herrscher auf.

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Ich und der nächste König von England trinken Kaffee. Me and the future King of England , having all the coffee. King of England , having all the coffee.

Sie sind der König von England. You're the King of England. Ihr seid der König von England. You are the king of England.

Heute wird zufällig der nächste König von England gewählt. There's a thing today where they pick the next King of England. Zweitens, wird mein Bruder gleich zum nächsten König von England gekrönt.

Second, my brother is about to be crowned the next King of England. Der König von England hat ein Frettchen auf dem Kopf.

The King of England has a ferret on his head. King of England has a ferret on his head. Ich bin der König von England. I'm the King of England.

Possibly inappropriate content Unlock. Register to see more examples It's simple and it's free Register Connect.

Suggest an example. König von Dänemark. Eroberte England und herrschte dort ein Jahr, ohne gekrönt zu werden. Kehrte nach dem Tod Svens aus seinem Exil zurück, wurde vom angelsächsischen Witan erneut zum König proklamiert und vertrieb Knut, den Sohn seines Rivalen, zunächst nach Dänemark.

Starb noch im selben Jahr wie sein Vater. Begründete ein nordisches Reich , in dem er über Dänemark, England und Norwegen herrschte.

Etablierte in England das System der Earldoms. Harald I. Behauptete sein Königtum mit der Unterstützung des Earls Godwin gegen die alte angelsächsische Dynastie und seinen Halbbruder.

Juni Nach dessen Tod konnte er den englischen Thron besteigen. Als er starb, wurde die angelsächsische Dynastie restauriert.

Stützte seine Herrschaft auf dänische und normannische Gefolgsleute. War von besonders religiösem Charakter und begann den Bau der Westminster Abbey.

Wehrte erfolgreich Thronansprüche aus Norwegen und Dänemark ab. Harald II. Sohn von Earl Godwin und Schwager seines Vorgängers.

Earl von Wessex. Durch den Witan zum König gewählt, schlug er eine norwegische Invasion an der Stamford Bridge zurück.

Nach der Schlacht bei Hastings vom Witan zum König gewählt, aber nicht gekrönt. War gegen den vorrückenden Wilhelm unterlegen und musste sich diesem im Dezember ergeben.

Wilhelm I. September Herzog der Normandie Wilhelm der Bastard. Im Anschluss unterwarf er das angelsächsische Königreich und begründete das anglo-normannische Reich.

Wilhelm II. Stand bis zuletzt gegen den französischen König. Heinrich I. Besiegte seinen Bruder Robert Kurzhose in der Schlacht bei Tinchebray und vereinte so wieder das anglo-normannische Reich seines Vaters.

Usurpierte den Thron gegen seine Cousine Matilda und löste damit den englischen Bürgerkrieg the Anarchy aus.

Dies führte zu einem politischen Erstarken des baronialen Standes. Musste die Macht nach seiner Gefangennahme in der Schlacht von Lincoln kurzzeitig an Matilda abtreten.

Witwe Kaiser Heinrichs V. Kämpfte gegen ihren Cousin Stephan um den Thron. Übernahm kurzzeitig die Macht, ohne aber gekrönt zu werden.

War nach der Schlacht von Winchester und der Freilassung Stephans gezwungen, das Land wieder zu verlassen.

Kämpfte nach seiner Freilassung weiter gegen Matilda und die Anjou, gegen die er die Normandie verlor. Heinrich II.

Begründete durch seine Ehe mit Eleonore von Aquitanien das angevinische Reich. Befand sich im ständigen Kampf gegen seine Söhne und den französischen König.

Festigte die englische Königsmacht gegenüber den Baronen. Richard I. Führte den dritten Kreuzzug — an und geriet in die Gefangenschaft des römisch-deutschen Kaisers.

August im Kampf um seine kontinentalen Besitzungen. Starb bei der Unterwerfung eines seiner Vasallen. Unter ihm brach das angevinische Reich zusammen.

Normandie, Anjou, Maine und Touraine gingen an den französischen König verloren. Nach der Revolte seiner Barone musste er die Magna Charta unterzeichnen.

Starb weitgehend entmachtet. Prinz der französischen Kapetinger-Dynastie. Wurde von den rebellierenden englischen Baronen zum König proklamiert, aber nicht gekrönt.

Heinrich III. Stand im ständigen Konflikt mit seinen Baronen und musste die Provisions of Oxford akzeptieren. Nach der Schlacht von Evesham wieder im Besitz der Herrschergewalt, musste er dennoch den Baronen weitgehende Mitspracherechte einräumen.

Eduard I. Bereits als Prinz ein herausragender politischer und militärischer Akteur, wurde er König während seines Kreuzzugs — Berief das Modellparlament ein.

Eduard II. Unterlag gegen die Schotten in der Schlacht von Bannockburn , wurde von seiner Ehefrau entmachtet und vermutlich auch ermordet.

Eduard III. Warfare in Normandy at the time was shaped by the defensive potential of castles and the increasing costs of conducting campaigns.

After his coronation, John moved south into France with military forces and adopted a defensive posture along the eastern and southern Normandy borders.

John and Philip negotiated the May Treaty of Le Goulet ; by this treaty, Philip recognised John as the rightful heir to Richard in respect to his French possessions, temporarily abandoning the wider claims of his client, Arthur.

In order to remarry, John first needed to abandon his wife Isabella, Countess of Gloucester; the King accomplished this by arguing that he had failed to get the necessary papal dispensation to marry the Countess in the first place — as a cousin, John could not have legally wed her without this.

Contemporary chroniclers argued that John had fallen deeply in love with her, and John may have been motivated by desire for an apparently beautiful, if rather young, girl.

Isabella, however, was already engaged to Hugh IX of Lusignan , an important member of a key Poitou noble family and brother of Raoul I, Count of Eu , who possessed lands along the sensitive eastern Normandy border.

Although John was the Count of Poitou and therefore the rightful feudal lord over the Lusignans, they could legitimately appeal John's actions in France to his own feudal lord, Philip.

He argued that he need not attend Philip's court because of his special status as the Duke of Normandy, who was exempt by feudal tradition from being called to the French court.

John initially adopted a defensive posture similar to that of avoiding open battle and carefully defending his key castles.

Accompanied by William de Roches, his seneschal in Anjou, he swung his mercenary army rapidly south to protect her.

John's position in France was considerably strengthened by the victory at Mirebeau, but John's treatment of his new prisoners and of his ally, William de Roches, quickly undermined these gains.

De Roches was a powerful Anjou noble, but John largely ignored him, causing considerable offence, whilst the King kept the rebel leaders in such bad conditions that twenty-two of them died.

Further desertions of John's local allies at the beginning of steadily reduced his freedom to manoeuvre in the region. After this, Arthur's fate remains uncertain, but modern historians believe he was murdered by John.

The eastern border region of Normandy had been extensively cultivated by Philip and his predecessors for several years, whilst Angevin authority in the south had been undermined by Richard's giving away of various key castles some years before.

John's mother Eleanor died the following month. The nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain.

John's predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas "force and will" , taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law.

John inherited a sophisticated system of administration in England, with a range of royal agents answering to the Royal Household: the Chancery kept written records and communications; the Treasury and the Exchequer dealt with income and expenditure respectively; and various judges were deployed to deliver justice around the kingdom.

The administration of justice was of particular importance to John. Several new processes had been introduced to English law under Henry II, including novel disseisin and mort d'ancestor.

One of John's principal challenges was acquiring the large sums of money needed for his proposed campaigns to reclaim Normandy. Revenue from the royal demesne was inflexible and had been diminishing slowly since the Norman conquest.

Matters were not helped by Richard's sale of many royal properties in , and taxation played a much smaller role in royal income than in later centuries.

English kings had widespread feudal rights which could be used to generate income, including the scutage system, in which feudal military service was avoided by a cash payment to the King.

He derived income from fines, court fees and the sale of charters and other privileges. The result was a sequence of innovative but unpopular financial measures.

At the start of John's reign there was a sudden change in prices , as bad harvests and high demand for food resulted in much higher prices for grain and animals.

This inflationary pressure was to continue for the rest of the 13th century and had long-term economic consequences for England. The result was political unrest across the country.

John's royal household was based around several groups of followers. One group was the familiares regis , his immediate friends and knights who travelled around the country with him.

They also played an important role in organising and leading military campaigns. This intensified under John's rule, with many lesser nobles arriving from the continent to take up positions at court; many were mercenary leaders from Poitou.

This trend for the King to rely on his own men at the expense of the barons was exacerbated by the tradition of Angevin royal ira et malevolentia "anger and ill-will" and John's own personality.

John was deeply suspicious of the barons, particularly those with sufficient power and wealth to potentially challenge the King.

John's personal life greatly affected his reign. Contemporary chroniclers state that John was sinfully lustful and lacking in piety. None of his known illegitimate children were born after he remarried, and there is no actual documentary proof of adultery after that point, although John certainly had female friends amongst the court throughout the period.

John married Isabella whilst she was relatively young — her exact date of birth is uncertain, and estimates place her between at most 15 and more probably towards nine years old at the time of her marriage.

Chroniclers recorded that John had a "mad infatuation" with Isabella, and certainly the King and Queen had conjugal relationships between at least and ; they had five children.

John's lack of religious conviction has been noted by contemporary chroniclers and later historians, with some suspecting that he was at best impious, or even atheistic , a very serious issue at the time.

They commented on the paucity of John's charitable donations to the Church. During the remainder of his reign, John focused on trying to retake Normandy.

John spent much of securing England against a potential French invasion. John had already begun to improve his Channel forces before the loss of Normandy and he rapidly built up further maritime capabilities after its collapse.

Most of these ships were placed along the Cinque Ports , but Portsmouth was also enlarged. During the truce of —, John focused on building up his financial and military resources in preparation for another attempt to recapture Normandy.

He launched his new fleet to attack the French at the harbour of Damme. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries the border and political relationship between England and Scotland was disputed, with the kings of Scotland claiming parts of what is now northern England.

He refused William's request for the earldom of Northumbria , but did not intervene in Scotland itself and focused on his continental problems.

John remained Lord of Ireland throughout his reign. He drew on the country for resources to fight his war with Philip on the continent.

Simmering tensions remained with the native Irish leaders even after John left for England. Royal power in Wales was unevenly applied, with the country divided between the marcher lords along the borders, royal territories in Pembrokeshire and the more independent native Welsh lords of North Wales.

John took a close interest in Wales and knew the country well, visiting every year between and and marrying his illegitimate daughter, Joan , to the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great.

Llywelyn came to terms that included an expansion of John's power across much of Wales, albeit only temporarily. The Norman and Angevin kings had traditionally exercised a great deal of power over the church within their territories.

From the s onwards, however, successive popes had put forward a reforming message that emphasised the importance of the Church being "governed more coherently and more hierarchically from the centre" and established "its own sphere of authority and jurisdiction, separate from and independent of that of the lay ruler", in the words of historian Richard Huscroft.

John wanted John de Gray , the Bishop of Norwich and one of his own supporters, to be appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, but the cathedral chapter for Canterbury Cathedral claimed the exclusive right to elect the Archbishop.

They favoured Reginald , the chapter's sub-prior. John refused Innocent's request that he consent to Langton's appointment, but the Pope consecrated Langton anyway in June John was incensed about what he perceived as an abrogation of his customary right as monarch to influence the election.

Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March , prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying.

John treated the interdict as "the equivalent of a papal declaration of war". Innocent gave some dispensations as the crisis progressed.

By , though, John was increasingly worried about the threat of French invasion. Under mounting political pressure, John finally negotiated terms for a reconciliation, and the papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulf Verraccio in May at the Templar Church at Dover.

This resolution produced mixed responses. Although some chroniclers felt that John had been humiliated by the sequence of events, there was little public reaction.

Tensions between John and the barons had been growing for several years, as demonstrated by the plot against the King. The northern barons rarely had any personal stake in the conflict in France, and many of them owed large sums of money to John; the revolt has been characterised as "a rebellion of the king's debtors".

In John began his final campaign to reclaim Normandy from Philip. He was optimistic, as he had successfully built up alliances with the Emperor Otto, Renaud of Boulogne and Ferdinand of Flanders; he was enjoying papal favour; and he had successfully built up substantial funds to pay for the deployment of his experienced army.

The first part of the campaign went well, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis and retaking the county of Anjou by the end of June.

Within a few months of John's return, rebel barons in the north and east of England were organising resistance to his rule.

This was particularly important for John, as a way of pressuring the barons but also as a way of controlling Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Letters of support from the Pope arrived in April but by then the rebel barons had organised. They congregated at Northampton in May and renounced their feudal ties to John, appointing Robert fitz Walter as their military leader.

John met the rebel leaders at Runnymede , near Windsor Castle , on 15 June Neither John nor the rebel barons seriously attempted to implement the peace accord.

The rebels made the first move in the war, seizing the strategic Rochester Castle , owned by Langton but left almost unguarded by the archbishop.

He had stockpiled money to pay for mercenaries and ensured the support of the powerful marcher lords with their own feudal forces, such as William Marshal and Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester.

John's campaign started well. One chronicler had not seen "a siege so hard pressed or so strongly resisted", whilst historian Reginald Brown describes it as "one of the greatest [siege] operations in England up to that time".

The rebel barons responded by inviting the French prince Louis to lead them: Louis had a claim to the English throne by virtue of his marriage to Blanche of Castile , a granddaughter of Henry II.

Prince Louis intended to land in the south of England in May , and John assembled a naval force to intercept him.

By the end of the summer the rebels had regained the south-east of England and parts of the north. In September , John began a fresh, vigorous attack.

He marched from the Cotswolds , feigned an offensive to relieve the besieged Windsor Castle , and attacked eastwards around London to Cambridge to separate the rebel-held areas of Lincolnshire and East Anglia.

John returned west but is said to have lost a significant part of his baggage train along the way. Louis gave up his claim to the English throne and signed the Treaty of Lambeth.

John's first wife, Isabella, Countess of Gloucester, was released from imprisonment in ; she remarried twice, and died in Historical interpretations of John have been subject to considerable change over the centuries.

Medieval chroniclers provided the first contemporary, or near contemporary, histories of John's reign. One group of chroniclers wrote early in John's life, or around the time of his accession, including Richard of Devizes , William of Newburgh , Roger of Hoveden and Ralph de Diceto.

In the 16th century political and religious changes altered the attitude of historians towards John. Tudor historians were generally favourably inclined towards the King, focusing on his opposition to the Papacy and his promotion of the special rights and prerogatives of a king.

By the Victorian period in the 19th century, historians were more inclined to draw on the judgements of the chroniclers and to focus on John's moral personality.

Kate Norgate , for example, argued that John's downfall had been due not to his failure in war or strategy, but due to his "almost superhuman wickedness", whilst James Ramsay blamed John's family background and his cruel personality for his downfall.

In the s, new interpretations of John's reign began to emerge, based on research into the record evidence of his reign, such as pipe rolls , charters, court documents and similar primary records.

Notably, an essay by Vivian Galbraith in proposed a "new approach" to understanding the ruler. Specialists in Irish medieval history, such as Sean Duffy, have challenged the conventional narrative established by Lewis Warren , suggesting that Ireland was less stable by than was previously supposed.

Most historians today, including John's recent biographers Ralph Turner and Lewis Warren, argue that John was an unsuccessful monarch, but note that his failings were exaggerated by 12th- and 13th-century chroniclers.

Warren Hollister , "The dramatic ambivalence of his personality, the passions that he stirred among his own contemporaries, the very magnitude of his failures, have made him an object of endless fascination to historians and biographers.

Popular representations of John first began to emerge during the Tudor period, mirroring the revisionist histories of the time.

Nineteenth-century fictional depictions of John were heavily influenced by Sir Walter Scott 's historical romance, Ivanhoe , which presented "an almost totally unfavourable picture" of the King; the work drew on 19th century histories of the period and on Shakespeare's play.

Sam De Grasse 's role as John in the black-and-white film version shows John committing numerous atrocities and acts of torture.

Milne 's poem for children, "King John's Christmas". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the King of England.

For the play by William Shakespeare, see King John play.

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