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Mammographie Mastektomie Mastoptose Menopause Metastase Mikrokalk Milchleiste J Narbe Nerv Neugeborenenmilch Plastik Plastische Chirurgie N O P Plazenta Progesteron Brust Rekonstruktion mit Bauchhaut Rekonstruktive Brustchirurgie Rekonstruktive Chirurgie Rippling Serom Silikon-Gel Sonographie Strahlentherapie [bei Brustkrebs] Tanner-Stadien der Brustentwicklung Thelarche Thrombose Tumor V Vollnarkose W Warzenhof Z BRCA breast cancer genes CE marking DIN ISO juvenile gigantomastia Austrian Medical Products Law TRAM flap reconstruction [of the breast] DEF 1a surgery: The branch of medicine that imploys operations in the treatment of disease or injury.
Surgery can involve cutting, abrading, suturing, or otherwise physically changing body tissues and organs.
GLOSSAR A general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, colon and rectal surgery, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, and urology.
General surgery is the parent specialty and now centres on operations involving the stomach, intestines, breast, blood vessels in the extremities,endocrine glands, tumours of soft tissues, and amputations.
In most other countries, breast care falls under Obstetrics and Gynecology and its sub-specialty of Mastology or Senology. DEF A rare condition wherein the normal growth of the breast and the nipple does not occur.
Unilateral amastia absence of one breast is often associated with absence of the pectoral muscles. Bilateral amastia absence of both breasts is associated in 40 percent of cases with multiple birth defects involving other parts of the body.
Beide wurden entweder eingenommen oder verbrannt, so dass man den Rauch einatmen konnte. Stickoxidul Lachgas , das der britische Chemiker Sir Humphry Davy um entdeckte, wurde von dem amerikanischen Zahnarzt Horace Wells erstmals zur Narkose eingesetzt.
DEF 1 Absence of physical sensation in part or all of the body. The term more commonly refers to a reversible condition that is induced using anaesthetic drugs.
These drugs may be injected, inhaled, or applied directly to the surface of the body. Induced anaesthesia may be local, involving only part of the body, or general, involving lack of sensation in the entire body as well as a loss of consciousness.
Anaesthesia is distinct from analgesia. An analgesic, or pain-relieving drug such as aspirin, may relieve a headache, but a person who takes an aspirin still feels other physical sensations, such as pressure, heat, cold, and vibration.
In contrast, anesthetic drugs block all physical sensations, though for medical purposes their ability to block pain is among their most important effects.
The process begins when certain nerve cell endings, known as pain receptors or nociceptors, are stimulated. Pain receptors are located in the skin, joints, muscles, the linings of the body cavities, and elsewhere in the body.
Nerve impulses travel from pain receptors along nerve fibers to the spinal cord and then to the brain. Pain impulses are relayed through a brain structure known as the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex, the area of the brain that interprets messages and generates the conscious sensation of pain.
At several points along their journey from pain receptor to cerebral cortex, pain impulses can be modified. The various drugs used in anaesthesia work by several different mechanisms to block the transmission or perception of pain and other sensations.
These drugs are taken up by organs, muscles, and brain tissue and interfere with the complex and poorly understood biochemical mechanisms of consciousness.
Anesthetic drugs that are inhaled dissolve in the blood and circulate to the brain. There they interact with brain cells, especially cells in the cerebral cortex that are involved in sensory perceptions.
Drugs used as local anesthetics block pain impulses in a specific part of the body, preventing these nerve impulses from reaching the brain.
These drugs interfere with the chemicals inside nerve fibers that are involved in transmission of nerve impulses.
DEF 1b Minor surgery has been performed for thousands of years, often with opium, alcohol, or Cannabis used to stupefy the patient.
However, these drugs were unable to block the pain and shock of surgery to enable lengthy operations or operations involving the interior of the body.
Nitrous oxide was first used as an anesthetic in by the American dentist Horace Wells. In American dentist William Morton used ether to produce general anaesthesia for surgery.
Crawford Long, an American surgeon, had been using ether since , but he did not publish his results until British physician Sir James Simpson first discovered the anesthetic properties of chloroform in Chloroform anaesthesia became more popular after another British physician, John Snow, administered it to Queen Victoria of England for childbirth in Anaesthesiology became an established branch of medicine in the United States during the early 20th century.
The American Society of Anesthesiologists, which sets standards of safety and ethics for anaesthesiologists, was founded in The Board of Anesthesiology, which maintains educational standards, was established in Anaesthetic drugs were also improved throughout the 20th century.
The first intravenous anesthetic, sodium pentothal, was introduced in by American physician John Lundy. The muscle relaxant curare, originally used in hunting by Native American tribes in South America, was first used in surgery in Better inhalation anesthetics were also developed to replace ether, which is flammable, and chloroform, which is toxic.
Other specialties within medicine are closely affiliated to anaesthetics. These include intensive care medicine and pain medicine.
Specialists in these disciplines have usually done some training in anaesthetics. The role of the anaesthetist is changing.
It is no longer limited to the operation itself. In the U. Anesthesiologist Assistants Aas are another group who administer anesthetics.
In the United Kingdom, personnel known as ODPs operating department practitioner or Anaesthetic nurses provide support to the anesthetist.
Eine solche Asymmetrie ist normal. Wenn sie sehr darunter leiden, kann eine plastische Operation angebracht sein.
DEF 1a A condition in which the female breasts are of unequal size. There are options on how to correct this condition. Breast implants can be used to augment one breast, making it similar to the other one.
Breast reduction can be performed to reduce the larger of the two breasts. This involves removal of excess fat and skin.
Either procedure results in breasts that are more similar in size. Correcting breast asymmetry has not only helped women improve upon their appearance, but it can also provide a boost to their self-esteem and self-confidence.
Linder, M. DEF 1a Surgery performed solely to improve appearance in otherwise healthy persons. Into this classification fall the majority of cases of rhinoplasty, rhytidectomy, breast augmentation, hair transplantation, and other procedures.
As an example, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons reported that in nearly 11 million cosmetic plastic surgeries were performed in the United States alone.
Within the U. These medical tourists get their procedures done for up 50 percent or more cost savings in countries including Cuba, Thailand, Argentina and India.
The risk of complications and the lack of after surgery support are often overlooked by those simply looking for the cheapest option.
TED Athelie N. DEF Nipple absence. Medically called athelia, this is a rare condition but it is common in certain conditions.
Athelia tends to occurs on one side unilaterally in children with the Poland sequence and on both sides bilaterally in certain types of ectodermal dysplasia.
Athelia also occurs in association with the progeria premature aging syndrome and the YunisVaron syndrome a multiple congenital malformation first reported in DEF 1a In physiology, any tissue in the body that maintains the form of the body and its organs and provides cohesion and internal support.
Connective tissues are composed of a variable structure of cells and fibers surrounded by an intercellular matrix that may be a fluid, solid, or gel, depending on the function of the particular connective tissue.
White fibrous connective tissue forms most of the tendons and ligaments. Yellow elastic connective tissue forms such structures as the pads between the vertebrae and the elastic elements of the arterial walls and the trachea.
Among other types of connective tissue, cartilage takes part in the formation of joints and the development of bone, and fat tissue provides a cushion for the support of such vital organs as the kidneys and stores excess food for use when needed.
Lymphatic tissue and blood are clearly related in embryonic development to the connective tissues. Es war ein langer Weg dorthin.
Letztlich gibt es heute keine gute Alternative zu den modernen Silikonimplantaten. The difference between the two types of breast implants has to do with the material inside this shell.
While saline implants are filled with salt water, similar to contacts solution, silicone implants are filled with a semi-solid, gel form of silicone.
They are soft and pliable, but do not leak out when they are cut open. Therein lies an important advantage of cohesive gel implants.
Jean M. Durch sie gelangt das Blut aus dem Herzen in die verschiedenen Gewebe. Weiterhin dienen sie als Blutspeicher.
DEF A vessel in the human or animal body in which blood circulates. The vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries, and their very small branches are arterioles.
Very small branches that collect the blood from the various organs and parts are called venules, and they unite to form veins, which return the blood to the heart.
Capillaries are minute, thinwalled vessels that connect the arterioles and venules; it is through the capillaries that nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the blood and body tissues.
VK 6,19, 25, 70, 71, 73 VI. DEF 1a 1. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.
Cancer is the general term for all malignant tumours. SOU-DEF 1b Encyclopaedia Britannica KON 1 In regard to a tumour, having the properties of a malignancy that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and that may spread metastasize to other parts of the body.
Der verbleibende Anteil wird durch Splice- bzw. Eine der beiden Mutationen del4 wurde in drei miteinander nicht verwandten Familien detektiert.
However, if such a woman develops breast cancer, her chances of dying of breast cancer are not necessarily greater than those of any other woman with breast cancer.
Women likely to have one of these genes are those who have a strong family history of breast cancer. Usually, several women in each of three generations have had breast cancer.
For this reason, routine screening for these genes does not appear necessary, except in women who have such a family history.
The incidence of ovarian cancer is increased in families with both breast cancer genes. The incidence of breast cancer in men is increased in families with the BRCA2 gene.
There is now convincing evidence that every woman with a BRCA mutation is at high risk for breast cancer, irrespective of whether she has a family history of breast cancer or not.
The BRCA mutations appear to cause breast cancer at an earlier age in younger generations. The culprit may be estrogen, which is rising with the epidemic of obesity.
Pregnancy is protective. BRCA mutation carriers who have children develop breast cancer as a rule later in life than those who never had children.
That finding is true for all types of breast cancer, not just cases caused by BRCA mutations. They may also be advised to take the drug tamoxifen to reduce the breast cancer risk.
Some women with BRCA mutations avoid breast cancer by having their breasts preventively removed.
Most BRCA carriers are also advised to have their ovaries removed after childbearing since there is currently no means of early detection for ovarian cancer.
Removing the ovaries also helps to lower the risk of breast cancer. DEF 1 breast: One of a pair of glandular organs in mammals that secrete milk for newborns and infants.
Also known as a mammary gland, particularly in nonhuman mammals, the breast is unique to mammals and is not found in any other type of animal.
The surface of a human breast has a circular, pigmented area in the center called the areola. The nipple, a rounded protruding structure, lies in the center of the areola.
In mature women the breast contains a collection of 10 to 15 tubes, called ducts, that connect to the nipple. These ducts branch out from the nipple into the interior of the breast, ending in clusters of rounded cells, called lobules, that produce the milk.
In addition to the structures directly connected with the production and outflow of milk, the breast is composed of fatty tissue and ligaments that provide support and shape.
Breast development begins in girls about 10 to 12 years old, when the ovaries start to produce the hormone estrogen.
Completion of breast development, which occurs around 16 to 18 years old, requires the interaction of other hormones such as progesterone, prolactin, and corticosteroids.
After breast growth is completed, the breasts typically undergo monthly cyclic changes in response to fluctuating hormone levels in the blood that occur during the menstrual cycle.
Just before the onset of menstruation, the breasts are often swollen and tender because the ductal system VI. If pregnancy does not occur, the estrogen level falls and the breasts return to normal.
During pregnancy there is a remarkable growth of ducts and lobules in the breast along with a thickening of the nipples.
After a baby is born, the hormone prolactin stimulates milk production in the breast. Initially, the breast produces a thick yellow liquid called colostrum, which is particularly rich in the disease-fighting substances called antibodies.
Within three to five days, the breast produces milk as the suckling infant stimulates the release of another hormone called oxytocin.
This hormone causes contractions in the network of cells that surround the ducts and lobules, so that milk readily flows from the breast and into the mouth of the hungry infant see Breast-feeding.
As a woman passes the childbearing age and enters menopause, the ovaries stop producing estrogen. The decreased stimulation from this hormone causes the milk-producing ducts and lobules in the breast to be replaced with extra fatty tissue.
Am kopfnahen kranialen oberen Ende des Manubriums ist eine Einkerbung, die Incisura jugularis von lat. Das Brustbein des Mannes ist schlanker als das der Frau.
DEF 1a The sternum is an elongated, flattened bone, forming the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax. It connects to the rib bones via cartilage, forming the rib cage with them, and thus helps to protect the lungs, heart and major blood vessels from physical trauma.
Its upper end supports the clavicles collarbones , and its margins articulate with the cartilages of the first seven pairs of ribs.
Its average length in the adult is about 17 cm, and is rather longer in the male than in the female. The sternum is composed of highly vascular cancellous tissue, covered by a thin layer of compact bone which is thickest in the manubrium between the articular facets for the clavicles.
These sections of the sternum arise as separate bones, and they may fuse partially or completely with one another. DEF Milk-producing gland characteristic of all female mammals and present in a rudimentary and generally nonfunctional form in males.
Mammary glands are regulated by the endocrine system and become functional in response to the hormonal changes associated with parturition.
The mammary gland of a woman who has not borne children consists of a conical disk of glandular tissue, which is encased in variable quantities of fat that give it its characteristic shape.
The glandular tissue itself is made up VI. Each lobe is drained by a separate excretory duct. These converge beneath the nipple, where they widen into milk reservoirs, before narrowing again to emerge as pinpoint openings at the summit of the nipple.
Circular and radiating muscles in the areola, a circular disk of roughened pigmented skin surrounding the nipple, cause the nipple to become firm and erect upon tactile stimulation; this facilitates suckling.
The areola also contains sebaceous glands to provide lubrication for the nipple during nursing. Mammary glands are derived from a modification of sweat glands.
They first appear in embryonic life as clumps of cells proliferating from a longitudinal ridge of ectoderm the outermost of the three germ layers of the embryo along the so-called milk line, from the buds, or beginnings, of the lowerlimbs to those of the upper limbs.
The number of these clumps that ultimately become breasts, or mammae, varies with each mammalian species according to the size of its litter.
In the human normally only one develops on each side of the chest. A lesser development of one or more breasts polymastia or nipples polythelia may, however, occur anywhere along the milk line.
In monotremes, they resemble sweat glands in structure, leading to speculation that they are sweat or sebaceous glands modified through evolution.
In higher orders, the glands at maturity are developed only in females; in monotremes they evolve equally in both sexes.
The organ in human males occasionally develops functional ability, giving support to the belief that lactation occurred in both sexes in prehistoric mammals.
The development of mammary glands is regulated by hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary and the ovaries; lactation is under the control of the other pituitary hormones.
Below, it is bounded by the diaphragm. The bony framework is encased with muscles, fat, and cutaneous tissues.
Zu Beginn treten schmerzlose, meist derbe, schlecht verschiebbare, langsam wachsende Knoten auf. Neben dem Tastbefund dienen v. Gesichert wird die Diagnose durch mikroskopische Gewebeuntersuchung.
Dies weist auf genetische Faktoren bei der Entstehung hin. Die Behandlung erfolgt meist operativ. Nach brusterhaltender Operation ist eine Nachbestrahlung erforderlich.
Nach der Operation gibt es u. Behandelt wird die gutartige Erkrankung mit hormonhaltigen Medikamenten.
DEF Disease characterized by the growth of malignant cells in the mammary glands. Breast cancer can strike males and females, although women are about times more likely to develop the disease than men.
Most cancers in female breasts form shortly before, during, or after menopause, with three-quarters of all cases being diagnosed after age Generally, the older a woman is, the greater is her likelihood of developing breast cancer.
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and in North America and Western Europe, where life spans are longer, the incidence is highest.
For instance, it is estimated that over 10 percent of all women in the United States will develop the disease at some point in their lives.
The exact causes of breast cancer are largely unknown, but both environmental and genetic factors are involved. A family history of breast cancer increases risk.
Prolonged exposure to the hormone estrogen, as when menstruation starts before age 12 and continues beyond age 50, favours development of cancer, and women who have had certain kinds of benign tumours are also more prone to developing breast cancer.
Other risk factors may include lack of exercise, use of oral contraceptives, alcohol consumption, and previous medical treatments involving chest irradiation.
The most common symptom of breast cancer is an abnormal lump or swelling in the breast, but lumps may also appear beside the breast or under the arm.
Other symptoms may include unexplained breast pain, abnormal nipple discharge, changes in breast texture, or changes in the skin on or around the breast.
Early diagnosis greatly improves the odds of survival. When detected early, breast cancer has a very high five-year survival rate, and patients who reach this stage often go on to live long, healthy lives.
Survival rates are lower for cancers that have spread locally, and they are very low for cancers that have metastasized, or spread, to distant parts of the body.
Breast cancer may be first discovered by the patient as the result of a regular breast self-examination. A breast X ray mammogram is often used for initial diagnosis, but in order to confirm the presence of cancer, a tissue sample biopsy usually must be taken.
If cancer is suspected to have spread to nearby lymph nodes, they must also be sampled. Several imaging methods may be used to determine the degree of metastasis, including X rays, computed tomography CT scans, or magnetic resonance imaging MRI.
The presence of receptors for the hormones estrogen and progesterone is also determined because these receptors play an important role in the VI.
Almost all cases of breast cancer begin in the glandular tissues that either produce milk lobular tissue or provide a passage for milk ductal tissue to the nipple.
Cancers of these tissues are called lobular carcinomas and ductal carcinomas. Because these tissues are glandular, both cancers are called adenocarcinomas.
The most common type of tumour, called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is a single hard, barely movable lump. This type of tumour accounts for about 70 percent of all cases.
Fewer than 15 percent of all cases are lobular carcinomas. There are several other types and subtypes of tumour classified and named according to several criteria, including their outward appearance, cellular composition, cellular origin, and activity.
Paget disease is an uncommon type of breast cancer that begins at the nipple and initially causes a burning, itching, or tender sensation.
Eventually the lesion becomes enlarged, cracks, oozes, and forms crusts. Inflammatory carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that results in swelling and reddening of the affected area.
The area then becomes purplish, and the skin is hot, with the nipple usually becoming crusted and retracted. Any lump found in the breast should be examined by a physician for the possibility of cancer.
If it is found to be malignant, treatment may entail surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Biological treatment is also an option. Surgery is often the first method of treatment, and a range of procedures are used depending on the type and progression of the cancer.
A lumpectomy removes only the cancerous mass and a small amount of surrounding tissue; a simple mastectomy removes the entire breast; and a modified radical mastectomy removes the breast along with adjacent lymph nodes.
Radical mastectomies involving removal of the breast, underlying muscle, and other tissue are rarely performed. Side effects of surgery may include changes in arm or shoulder mobility, swelling, infection, and numbness.
When lymph nodes are removed, fluid may build up in the region they were taken from. Partial or complete breast removal is often followed by cosmetic or reconstructive surgery.
Side effects of radiation include swelling or thickening of the breast, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, or skin irritations resembling sunburn.
Chemotherapy, the use of chemicals to destroy cancerous cells, is commonly employed. Chemotherapeutic agents also attack normal cells to some degree, causing side effects that include hair loss, immune suppression, mouth sores, fatigue, and nausea.
Breast cancer can also be treated through biological therapy, in which chemical inhibitors are used to block the hormones that stimulate growth of cancer cells.
Tamoxifen, for instance, is a common drug that blocks the ability of estrogen to stimulate tumour growth, and Megace blocks the action of progesterone by partially mimicking the hormone.
Herceptin is a manufactured antibody that binds to growth factor receptors on the surface of cancer cells and thereby blocks cell proliferation.
Breast cancer cannot be completely prevented, but the risk of developing advanced disease can be greatly reduced by early detection.
Women at high risk of developing breast cancer may benefit from taking tamoxifen to reduce their risk. Women who are at extreme risk, as determined by a very strong family history or the presence VI.
Die Therapie wird auf die jeweilige Erkrankungssituation der Patientin abgestimmt. Operative Behandlung Es wird in jedem Fall angestrebt, bei Brustkrebs brusterhaltend zu operieren.
Da viel Wert auf Kosmetik gelegt wird, werden Narben z. Die erste Station, die die Zellen hier passieren, sind die Achsellymphknoten.
Je nachdem ob bzw. Nach einer Mastektomie Brustentfernung muss im Normalfall nicht bestrahlt werden. Hier kann die Bestrahlung auch als erste Therapie eingesetzt werden.
Die Bestrahlung selbst ist schmerzfrei und erfolgt ambulant. Das Operationsgebiet bzw. Diese Therapie wird normalerweise nach einer Operation eingesetzt.
Die Medikamente werden entweder gespritzt oder als Infusion verabreicht. Zellen des Verdauungstraktes, Haarzellen oder Blutzellen durch die Therapie angegriffen.
Die Nebenwirkungen verschwinden wieder nach Beendigung der Therapie bzw. Liegt ein hormonsensibler Tumor vor, kann das Wachstum durch antihormonelle Medikamente gehemmt werden.
Often, a combination of these treatments is used. Surgery for breast cancer consists of two main options: Breast-conserving surgery in which only the tumor and an area of normal tissue surrounding it is removed and mastectomy in which all breast tissue is removed.
Breastconserving surgery includes lumpectomy in which a small amount of surrounding normal tissue is removed , wide excision or partial mastectomy in which a somewhat larger amount of the surrounding normal tissue is removed , and quadrantectomy in which one fourth of the breast is removed.
Surgery: The cancerous tumor and varying amounts of the surrounding tissue are removed. There are two main options for removing the tumor: breast-conserving surgery and removal of the breast mastectomy.
Breast-conserving surgery leaves as much of the breast intact as possible. There are several types: Lumpectomy is removal of the tumor with a small amount of surrounding normal tissue Wide excision or partial mastectomy is removal of the tumor and a somewhat larger amount of surrounding normal tissue Quadrantectomy is removal of one fourth of the breast Removing the tumor with some normal tissue provides the best chance of preventing cancer from recurring within the breast.
Breast-conserving surgery is usually combined with radiation therapy. The major advantage of breast-conserving surgery is cosmetic: This surgery may help preserve body image.
Thus, when the tumor is large in relation to the breast, this type of surgery is less likely to be useful. In such cases, removing the tumor plus some surrounding normal tissue means removing most of the breast.
Breast-conserving surgery is usually more appropriate when tumors are small. However, in most women, the treated breast shrinks somewhat and may change in contour.
Mastectomy is the other main surgical option. There are several types: Simple mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue but leaving the muscle under the breast and enough skin to cover the wound.
Reconstruction of the breast is much easier if these tissues are left. A simple mastectomy, rather than breast-conserving surgery, is usually performed when there is a substantial amount of cancer in the milk ducts.
Modified radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue and some lymph nodes in the armpit but leaving the muscle under the breast.
This procedure is usually performed instead of a radical mastectomy. Radical mastectomy consists of removing all breast tissue plus the lymph nodes in the armpit and the muscle under the breast.
This procedure is rarely performed now. Lymph node surgery lymph node dissection is also performed if the cancer is or is suspected to be invasive.
Nearby lymph nodes usually about 10 to 20 are removed and examined to determine whether the cancer has spread to them.
If cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes, the likelihood that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body is increased. In such cases, additional treatment is needed.
Removal of lymph nodes often causes problems, because it affects the drainage of fluids in tissues. As a result, fluids may accumulate, causing persistent swelling lymphedema of the arm or hand.
Arm and shoulder movement may be limited. Other problems include temporary or persistent numbness, VI. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is an alternative approach that may minimize or avoid the problems of lymph node surgery.
This procedure involves locating and removing the first lymph node or nodes into which the tumor drains.
If this node contains cancer cells, the other lymph nodes are removed. If it does not, the other lymph nodes are not removed.
Whether this procedure is as effective as standard lymph node surgery is being studied. Breast reconstruction surgery may be performed at the same time as a mastectomy or later.
The safety of silicone implants, which sometimes leak, has been questioned. However, there is almost no evidence suggesting that silicone leakage has serious effects.
Ein einzelner Muskel lat. Demnach unterscheidet man glatte Muskulatur und quer gestreifte Muskulatur. Das einem Muskel zugrunde liegende Gewebe ist das Muskelgewebe, welches aus charakteristischen Muskelzellen besteht.
Beim Skelettmuskel werden die Muskelzellen als Muskelfasern bezeichnet. Wenn der Muskel sich zusammenzieht, gleiten diese Filamentreihen mit Hilfe von Querverbindungen, die wie Sperrklinken wirken, aneinander vorbei.
Die Muskelfasern kann man nach ihrer Funktion in schnelle und langsame Fasern einteilen. Bei manchen Krankheiten, z. It is classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle, and its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs.
Much of muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival, like the contraction of the heart, or peristalsis which pushes food through the digestive system.
Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.
There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers, slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.
Each muscle cell, or fiber, contains several myofibrils, which are composed of regularly arranged myofilaments of two types, thick and thin.
Each thick myofilament contains several hundred molecules of the protein myosin. Thin filaments contain two strands of the protein actin.
The myofibrils are made up of alternating VI. During muscular contractions, these interdigitated rows of filaments slide along each other by means of cross bridges that act as ratchets.
The energy for this motion is generated by densely packed mitochondria that surround the myofibrils.
Smooth muscle is found in organs made up also of other tissues, such as the heart and intestines, which contain layers of connective tissue.
Skeletal muscle is usually found in bundles, composing muscular structures resembling organs in function.
These often ripple the skin visibly during muscular action. The shape of the muscular organ is dependent on its location and function.
Muscle fibers have been classified by function into slow twitch type I and fast twitch type II. Most skeletal muscles are composed of both types of fibers, although one type may predominate.
The fast-twitch, darker-hued muscle fibers contract more rapidly and produce bursts of power; the slow-twitch, lighter-hued muscle fibers have greater endurance.
Muscles that are given proper exercise react to stimuli quickly and powerfully, and are said to possess tone. As a result of excessive use, muscles may hypertrophy, that is, increase in size because of an increase in size of the individual muscle cells.
As a result of prolonged disuse, muscles may atrophy, or diminish in size, and become weaker.
In certain diseases, such as various forms of paralysis, the muscles may atrophy to such a degree that they are reduced to a fraction of their normal size.
There are two such muscles on each side of the sternum breastbone in the human body: pectoralis major and pectoralis minor.
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